File Naming Conventions for Graphical Versions

File naming for graphical versions (Adobe Acrobat/PDF, "pageable JPEGs, etc.)  by any other name is "paginating."  It is the processes of giving the pages or files, comprising a digital resource, unique names so as to structure and reference them for display or use.

Prior to scanning, we recommend that the scanning technician "interview" the source document to predetermine how files will be named and specifically how the technician will deal with oddities of source-document pagination and arrangement.

Pagination and correct file-naming are key to use of the digital resource. The FCLA Digital Library assumes that a user may consult the index and query the page electronically using the pagination found in the printed resource. This assumption works only if page and file names can be correlated. While usually valid, the following instructions may not always be correct. There are only two rules:

  • First: No file-name may be used more than once (i.e., no two files may have the same file-name), and
     
  • Second: Use the names and numbers found on the source page(s) or in its Table of Contents, Index or Finding Guide, unless this conflicts with the first rule.

 

GUIDELINES
  • Named pages
    For every named or numbered page, assign the same name or number to the file.
    ILLUSTRATION
     
  • Unnamed pages,with Implicit FRONT Pagination
    Some unnamed or unnumbered front pages have implicit, unprinted names or numbers.
    If the first named or numbered page is not "a", "i", "1" or another digit commonly associated with the start of a named or numbered series of pages, count back from the first named or numbered pages to that start digit. These pages should have names or numbers in the series.
    ILLUSTRATION
     
  • Unnamed pages, with Implicit BACK Pagination
    Some unnamed or unnumbered pages at the end of a named/numbered series of pages have implicit, unprinted names or numbers.
    Identify unnamed/unnumbered front pages before identifying back pages.
    Using the naming or numbering scheme used immediately prior to the first unnamed/unnumbered back page, name or number the back pages.
    ILLUSTRATION
     
  • Other Unnamed Pages
    After identifying implicit front and back pages, it is possible that some pages will still go unnamed or unnumbered. Such pages are frequently title pages or unnamed/unnumbered plates (see also, Plates, below).
    Establish pagination for these pages, using one unique consecutive numbering scheme.
    ILLUSTRATION 1
    ILLUSTRATION 2
     
  • Erroneously Named Pages
    From time to time, a printer will have used the same pagination twice.
    If this can be corrected, do so. ILLUSTRATION
    Otherwise add a designation to second file to distinguish it from the first. Consult the index to see if other changes will be required. ILLUSTRATION
     
  • No Pagination
    Many source documents -- manuscripts, pamphlets, etc. -- have no pagination whatsoever! For such documents, pagination must be established.
    Before establishing pagination, review finding guides, indexes, and any published references to the source document. If a page naming or numbering scheme has already been used, particularly in a published reference or finding guide distributed beyond the holding location, use that scheme.
    Otherwise, establish pagination using one consecutive numbering scheme.
    ILLUSTRATION
     
  • Binding Artifacts :
    (Book Covers, Spine, Fly-Leaves, and Fore-Edges)

    Digital facsimiles frequently reproduce source artifacts including covers, spine and fly-leaves. These will be named accordingly. Terms other than those recommended below may be used. Whatever the terms, their use should be consistent with this recommendation.
     
    ARTIFACT TYPE ARTIFACT NAME FILE NAME
    COVER FRONT COVER (Recto) cover1.TIF
    FRONT COVER (Verso)
    [inside front cover]
    cover2.TIF
    BACK COVER (Recto)
    [inside back cover]
    cover3.TIF
    BACK COVER (Verso) cover4.TIF
    FLY LEAVES
    [sheets between covers and textblock]
    PASTE DOWN
    (verso of front cover)
    cover2.TIF
    PASTE DOWN
    (recto of back cover)
    cover3.TIF
    FLY LEAF #
    (counting front to back)
    fly[number].TIF
    fly1.TIF
    fly2.TIF
    FORE-EDGES CLOSED FORE-EDGE
    (unbent edges)
    edge0.TIF
    FORE-EDGE, BENT UP edge1.TIF
    FORE-EDGE, BENT DOWN edge2.TIF
    SPINE SPINE
    [spine covering]
    spine.TIF
    SEWING
    BINDING
    binding.TIF
     
    Ffiles named for spine and fore-edge artifacts follow files representing the covers, fly-leaves and text pages. ILLUSTRATION
     
  • Maps
    Maps need to be viewed at sizes well beyond screen size, preferably in a scalable or vector format. The delivery of vector formats is still on the Digital Library's research and development agenda.
    Preparation of maps in raster format may require segmentation; apply the following guidelines as possible.
    ILLUSTRATION  Use the format, [map number]_[zoom level/view depth]_[row number][section name], for file naming of segments/sections. Example: 2_1_3a = map 2, 1st sectionalization, 3rd row from top, 1st section of row.  (ZOOM LEVEL: see also SCRAPBOOKS)
     
    Collected maps are frequently removed from printed volumes. When this is the case, there may be three image files:
    1. a separate image of the map;
    2. an image of the page on which the map exist; and
    3. an image of the verso or recto of this page.
    ILLUSTRATION 
    Maps removed from printed volumes may bear both a page and a plate number. When this is the case adopt one of the two.
     
  • Plates, Inserts, etc.
    If plates, inserts, etc. are named or numbered, use the established names or numbers. If necessary to distinguish plate/insert numbering from one another or from page numbering, prefix the plate/insert name or number with a descriptive term, i.e., plateIV.TIF.
    ILLUSTRATION
    Otherwise, establish pagination for unnamed/unnumbered plates, inserts, etc. using one unique consecutive numbering scheme that does not conflict with page or other naming/numbering. Again, if necessary to distinguish plate/insert numbering from one another or from page numbering, prefix the plate/insert name or number with a descriptive term, i.e., plateIV.TIF.
    ILLUSTRATION with Unnamed Plates
     
  • Enclosures :
    (Boxes, Envelopes, etc.)

    Digital facsimiles infrequently reproduce source enclosures, including boxes, envelopes, etc.  Most enclosures lend themselves to multiple image, two-dimensional scanning, but some enclosures (e.g., sculpted boxes, tins, etc.) will require three dimensional imaging.  Enclosures will be named accordingly. Terms other than those recommended below may be used. Whatever the terms, their use should be consistent with this recommendation.
    ARTIFACT TYPE ARTIFACT NAME FILE NAME
    BOX COMPLETE
    (three dimensional image)
    box0.TIF
    TOP box1.TIF
    BACK box2.TIF
    SIDE box3.TIF
    box4.TIF
    box5.TIF
    box6.TIF
    ENVELOPE FRONT envelope1.TIF
    BACK envelope2.TIF
    OTHER
    (Internal Flaps, etc.)
    envelope3.TIF
    envelope4.TIF
    envelope5.TIF
     
    ILLUSTRATION (Boxes)
    ILLUSTRATION (Envelope)
     
  • Scrapbooks
    Scrapbooks represent archaeology. Their contents will seem to defy organization. We have special instructions for scanning scrapbooks.

Some pagination just seems to defy gravity and description. Consult indexes, finding guides, etc., and use best-judgment and common sense to name files. There is only one rule: "No file-name may be used more than once" (i.e., no two files may have the same file-name).