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NATIONAL STANDARDS AND RESOURCES

Standards Organizations

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
ANSI does not develop standards but accredits and coordinates qualified standards development groups. ANSI also coordinates US participation in international arenas and is the official US representative to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM)
AIIM is a trade association for users and suppliers of content, document and process management technologies. Its membership includes many hardware manufacturers of storage, scanning and micrographics technologies. Its standards arm is an ANSI-accredited standards developer in the area of micrographics and electronic imaging.

Book And Serial Industry Communications (BASIC)
BASIC is the standards forum of the Book Industry Study Group (BISG), a US research organization supported by over 200 publishers, booksellers, librarians, wholesalers, book manufacturers and suppliers. Formed through the union of BISAC (books) and SISAC (serials), BASIC works closely with its European counterpart, EDItEUR and focuses on EDI formats, standard numbering systems, and metadata.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
ISO is a federation of national standards organizations from roughly 130 countries. ISO develops international standards via a hierarchy of technical committees (TCs), subcommittees (SCs) and working groups. Some technical committees of interest to digital libraries are JTC1 Information Technology, TC42 Photography, and TC46 Information and Documentation.

International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
The ITU has a standards arm, ITU-T which develops "recommendations" in the areas of voice and data communications. These include X.25 (packet switching), X.28 (ASN.1), and the X.500 directory specification.

National Information Standards Organization (NISO)
NISO is an ANSI-accredited standards developer in the area of libraries, primary and secondary publishing, and information services. NISO develops standards in many areas relevant to digital library applications including identifiers (ISBN, DOI, etc.), protocols (Z39.50, circulation interchange), and metadata.

OASIS
The Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards, is an international industry consortium dedicated to accelerating the adoption of product-independent formats based on public standards including HTML, SGML, and XML. While OASIS does not develop standards itself, it does issue guidelines to facilitate product interoperability.

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
The W3C develops "recommendations" related to use of the World Wide Web, including HTML, XML, metadata (PICS and RDF), and stylesheets (CSS and XSL). The W3C's Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) has produced a number of guidelines for the development of websites and web-based applications accessible to users with visual, hearing, physical, or cognitive disabilities.

World Standards Services Network (WSSN)
The WSSN maintains a portal to international, regional, and national standards organizations.

Bibliographies and General Information

Besser, Howard. Image and MultiMedia Database Resources
A bibliography of resources in many categories including digitization, metadata, legal and ethical issues, retrieval and costs, with particular focus on visual resources. Howard uses this for his classes at Berkeley, so it tends to be updated each semester, though not all links are current.

Institute for Museum and Library Services. A Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections.
A framework for identifying, organizing and applying existing guidelines related to the creation of good digital objects, metadata, collections and projects. Includes pointers to a number of quality resources.

Library of Congress. Building Digital Collections
Specifications, guidelines, reports and other documents related to American Memory, covering technical practices, workflow and production, rights and restrictions, and background papers.

Identifiers

Book Item and Contribution Identifier (BICI)
The BICI is a NISO Draft Standard for Trial Use available in PDF form from the NISO website. It is an identifier derived from bibliographic data that can be used to identify component parts of books and non-serial publications.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
The DOI is an identifier developed by publishers and maintained by the International DOI Foundation. The DOI syntax is ANSI/NISO Z39.84-2000.

OpenURL
OpenURL is a way of carrying metadata in an actionable URL which can be used as a tool for providing extended services such as links to related objects and services. It has been implemented in SFX and other services, and may be proposed for development as an ANSI/NISO standard.

Persistent Uniform Resource Locator (PURL)
PURLs are URLs that point to a redirection service (a PURL server) which associates the PURL with the actual URL of the object. They were developed by OCLC as a means of supporting persistence through indirection.

Serial Item and Contribution Identifier (SICI)
The SICI is an identifier derived from bibliographic data that can be used for journal issues and contributions (e.g. articles) within issues. The SICI syntax is ANSI/NISO Z39.56-1996 Version 2.

Imaging

Besser, Howard. Procedures and Practices for Scanning
Written for the Canadian Heritage Information Network.

Cornell University Library. Moving Theory into Practice: Digital Imaging Tutorial
An online tutorial with a process-oriented approach to planning and executing imaging projects. It can optionally be used with the published volume Moving Theory Into Practice: Digital Imaging for Libraries and Archives, by Ann Kenney and Oya Reiger (RLG, 2000).

JPEG and JBIG homepage
Homepage of ISO/IEC JTC1 SC29 Working Group 1, more commonly known as the JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) and JBIG (Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group), the committee responsible for standards for still image compression.

Library of Congress. Digital Formats for Content Reproduction
Prepared primarily for LC/Ameritech grant winners, this 1998 document by Carl Fleishhauer recommends physical specifications and capture approaches for images of text, visual material, maps and other types of materials.

Research Libraries Group and Digital Library Federation. Guides to Quality in Visual Resource Imaging
A series of five topical guides to digital imaging of visual materials, including original photographs, prints, drawings, maps, etc.

Text and Optical Character Recognition

UNICODE Consortium home page
Includes a link to Chapter 1 of the UNICODE standard (you have to buy the rest) and a surprising amount of understandable information, including a fairly extensive FAQ.

University of Virginia. Text Scanning: A Basic Helpsheet
A short practical guide to getting started, prepared by the University of Virginia's Electronic Text Center.

Document Markup

Cover, Robin. The XML Cover Pages
An excellent, current, comprehensive subject gateway to resources related to XML and SGML.

Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) home page
The TEI maintains a set of Guidelines for marking up texts in SGML for linguistic analysis and humanities research. A simplified version known as "TEI-Lite" is frequently used as a mark-up standard in digital library applications. Part of the mark-up standard, the "TEI Header", addresses Descriptive Metadata for encoded texts.

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) homepage
The place to start for information on HTML, XML and related specifications such as stylesheets. Links to the current, authoritative (if not always easy to read) versions of standards (recommendations) and working drafts.

Descriptive Metadata

Data Documentation Initiative
A standard for describing social science datasets, represented as an XML DTD.

Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES)
A set of 15 elements for simple resource description, used heavily in digital library applications, especially for visual materials and items in collections where full cataloging may not be warranted.

Encoded Archival Description (EAD)
Machine-readable representation of archival finding aids, represented as an SGML DTD.

Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC)
The FGDC maintains this portal to geospatial metadata resources, including the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM).

MARC Standards
The LC Network Development and MARC Standards Office maintains this site relating to MARC Standards, which includes an HTML version of the MARC21 Concise Format for Bibliographic Data and other documentation.

Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS)
An emerging schema for encoding descriptive, administrative, and structural metadata regarding objects within a digital library.

ONIX International
A descriptive metadata standard for the book trade, developed by various publishing industry groups. Described as a subset of the larger EPICS Data Dictionary which is supposed to be conformant with the INDECS data model.

SCHEMAS
The SCHEMAS Project of the European Union's Information Society Technologies (IST) Programme aims to inform developers and implementers of metadata schema about the status and proper use of new and emerging metadata standards. The Metadata Watch section of the site tracks international metadata developments in academic and other sectors including audio-visual, GIS and publishing.

Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) Header
The part of the TEI Guidelines for text encoding (see "Document Markup") that addresses the description of encoded texts, including basic bibliographic information. Often used for SGML-encoded documents even when these are not marked up according to TEI guidelines.

Visual Resources Association Core Categories Version 3
A metadata standard for describing visual resources, related to but much smaller than the Getty Categories for the Description of Art.

Technical Metadata

DIG35
The committee of the Digital Imaging Group responsible for developing metadata standards, they have been focusing on technical metadata for images output from digital cameras.

NISO Standards Committee on Technical Metadata for Still Images
An outcome of a 1999 Workshop on Technical Metadata for Images this Standards Committee is charged with drafting a data dictionary of metadata elements for describing still images. The goal is to issue the document as a Draft Standard for Trial Use in 2001.

Interoperability

Open Archives Initiative
The home site for metadata harvesting, a relatively simple way of building large union "catalogs" of diverse resources.

Z39.50
The international standard protocol for cross-system search and retrieval.

Archiving and Preservation

Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR)
CLIR supports a series of initiatives related to strategies for digital archiving.

CURL Exemplars in Digital Archives (CEDARS)
The primary digital preservation initiative in the UK.

National Library of Australia. Preservation Metadata for Digital Collections
A draft for comment of a preservation metadata element set informed by the OAIS model.

PADI: Preserving Access to Digital Information
The premier subject gateway to international digital preservation resources, maintained by the National Library of Australia.

PANDORA
A project of the National Library of Australia, PANDORA has established a national archive of Australian online publications including electronic journals and government publications, and is developing approaches, policies and procedures for the longterm preservation of these publications.

Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS)
A draft ISO standard developed by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), OAIS is becoming heavily used in the digital library community as the basis for the development of policies and metadata standards for long-term retention and preservation.

The RLG Preservation Program (PRESERV)
A program addressing longterm preservation of digital resources. The website includes many useful resources including the report of the RLG Working Group on Preservation Issues of Metadata, better known as the PRESERV metadata element set.

Journals and Newsletters

Ariadne
A quarterly magazine published by UKOLN (UK Office for Library and Information Networking), Ariadne focuses on digital library issues and initiatives of interest to academic librarians. It can be seen as the European counterpart to D-Lib Magazine.

D-Lib Magazine
The premier North American ejournal covering digital library applications and research. In addition to articles, each monthly issue includes an extensive list of upcoming conferences, workshops and other events.

Primary Source
A monthly email newsletter of the Institute of Museum and Library Services, Primary Source covers current IMLS news, grant deadlines and announcement dates, new publications, and highlights of funded projects.

RLG DigiNews
A bimonthly newsletter focusing on issues related to digital preservation, conservation and archiving. DigiNews is produced for RLG by the Cornell University Library Department of Preservation and Conservation with some support from CLIR.


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